Isnin, Disember 21, 2009

Rare mushroom found in Saanich


An extremely rare mushroom that looks as if it's wearing yellow rubber boots has been found on Observatory Hill in Saanich.
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Victoria mycologist Oluna Ceska, who is working on a fungi inventory for scientists at the National Research Council's Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, found the Squamanita paradoxa mushroom Nov. 27, and has now had its identity confirmed.
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It's the first time the Squamanita has been found in Canada, she said.
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Ceska's husband, Adolf, former botany curator at the Royal B.C. Museum, was with her when the strange mushroom was found.
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"Adolf almost wanted to throw it away and I said, 'My God, put it back and take pictures,' " said Ceska, who did not know exactly what it was, but sensed it was rare. "I thought it was just a new species of a genus I knew, but when I got home I couldn't find out what it was."
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When she realized what she had found, her excitement grew and she contacted other mycologists around the world.
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Squamanita was described by University of Washington mycologists in Seattle in 1948 and some have been found in the Mount Hood area.
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There was another report of the species from Priest Lake, Idaho.
"Our find is the first in Canada and perhaps only the third record from North America," said Adolf Ceska.
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Even in Europe it is rare, with about half a dozen reports from areas such as France, Italy and the Czech Republic, said Oluna Ceska. What makes the mushroom particularly interesting is that it grows parasitically on more common species of mushrooms, she said. That means the bottom of the fungus, which resembles the yellow boots, is a completely different species.
"The lower part is not even related."
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Samples of the mushroom have been sent to the University of B.C. herbarium and to the University of Tennessee, where a DNA analysis will be conducted.
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Photos have been sent to other researchers and the find will probably be included in a paper written by a U.S. mycologist on North American species of fungus.
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"Now we know where it grows, we can go every year to see if it's fruiting. Everything depends on the weather," Ceska said.
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The Squamanita could also be growing in other areas of Vancouver Island, said Ceska, who would like to hear from anyone who thinks they have seen the mushroom.
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Southern Vancouver Island has a wealth of fungi, said Ceska, who believes someone should be compiling an in-depth inventory of species in B.C. During the five years Ceska has been working on the Observatory Hill inventory, she has documented 850 species. "And I am sure that is not close to the final number," she said.
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Ceska can be contacted at aceska@telus.net.
jlavoie@tc.canwest.com

Rabu, Disember 16, 2009

Puree of Mushroom Soup


This dish is similar to a cream of mushroom soup, but without the dairy. This soup is pure mushroom, with a couple of potatoes thrown in for thickening. Served with paper-thin slices of mushroom as garnish, it makes a very elegant soup.
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  • 1 1/2 pounds white or cremini mushrooms
  • 1/2 ounce dried mushrooms, any kind
  • Salt to taste
  • 2 tablespoons extra virgin olive oil, or 1 tablespoon olive oil and 1 tablespoon butter
  • 1/2 cup finely chopped shallot or onion
  • 3 or 4 garlic cloves, green shoots removed, minced
  • 3 tablespoons dry sherry
  • 2 teaspoons low-sodium soy sauce (optional)
  • A bouquet garni made with a bay leaf and few sprigs each parsley and thyme
  • 2 medium potatoes (5 or 6 ounces total), preferably on the starchy side (such as Yukon gold), peeled and diced
  • Freshly ground pepper
  • 1/2 teaspoon fresh lemon juice
  • Chopped flat-leaf parsley or slivered fresh sage leaves for garnish
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1. Set aside 4 medium mushrooms for garnish. Stem the remaining mushrooms, and cut the caps into quarters. Set aside the caps, and combine the stems with the dried mushrooms in a large saucepan.

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Add 1 1/2 quarts water and bring to a simmer. Cover, reduce the heat and simmer 30 minutes. Set a strainer lined with cheesecloth, a coffee filter, or paper towels over a bowl, and drain the mushrooms. Squeeze the mushrooms over the strainer to extract all of the tasty liquid remaining in them. Season the broth to taste with salt. Discard the dried mushrooms and stems.
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2. Heat the olive oil (or olive oil and butter) over medium heat in a large, heavy soup pot, and add the shallots or onions. Cook, stirring, until tender -- about three minutes for shallots, five for onions. Add the garlic, and stir together for about 30 seconds. Add the quartered mushrooms and a generous pinch of salt.

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Cook, stirring often, until the mushrooms are tender and have released a lot of juice, about 10 minutes. Add 2 tablespoons of the sherry and the soy sauce, and cook, stirring, for a few minutes. Add the stock, the bouquet garni and the potatoes. Bring to a simmer, cover and simmer 1 hour. Remove the bouquet garni, and discard.
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3. Working in small batches and covering the top of your blender tightly with a kitchen towel, puree the soup. Alternatively, use a hand blender to puree the soup in the pot. (You’ll get a smoother, more velvety texture if you use a blender.) Return to the pot, and heat through. Season to taste with salt and pepper. If you wish, stir in another tablespoon of sherry.

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4. Trim the mushrooms you set aside, and slice paper-thin. Toss with the lemon juice. Serve the soup, and garnish each bowl with chopped parsley or slivered sage and sliced fresh mushrooms.

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Yield: Serves four.

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Advance preparation: You can make this a day ahead and reheat.

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Martha Rose Shulman can be reached at
martha-rose-shulman.com. -The New York Times

Khamis, Disember 10, 2009

Cendawan Merah

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CENDAWAN MERAH @ Ganoderma Lucidium


Cendawan Merah atau Ganoderma Lucidium ialah nama saintifik bagi Ling Zhi. Ganoderma dalam bahasa Cina dikenali sebagai Ling Zhi manakalanya Reishi dalam bahasa Jepun. Ganoderma Lucidium merupakan sejenis cendawan daripada famili Polyoraceae.
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Ganoderma Lucidium merupakan jamur kayu yang konon sudah ribuan tahun deketahui memiliki khasiat ubat. Mulai dari batuk hingga kanser baisa mencapai 2.000ppm dan polisakarida. Kedua-dua unsur ini diyakini sebagai zat ajaib penangkal pelbagai penyakit. Menurut Sistem Pengklasifikasi Fungsi Ainsworth {1973}, Ganoderma Lucidium tergolong dalam Basidiomycotina, Hymenomycetes, Holobasidiomycetiddae, Aphyllophorales atau Polyporals.
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Ganodermatacea Ganoderma. Genus cendawan ini ialah Ganoderma dan selain spesies Lucidium, terdapat beberapa spesies lain daripada genus ini Contohnya Ganoderma Lucudium (merah), Ganoderma Applanatum (perang), Ganoderma Tsugae (merah), Ganoderma Sinense (unggu), Ganoderma Oregonense (perang tua).
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JENIS-JENIS GANODERMA
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GANODERMA LUCIDIUM
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Ganoderma Lucidium merupakan sejenis spesies Ling Zhi yang paling dikenali. Ia digunakan secara meluas untuk mengatasi masalah kesihatan. Ganoderma mempunyai ciri-ciri seperti mempunyai tangkai yang panjang, memiliki badan yang berkilat dan berwarna perang seperti buah berangan, galuran serta spora yang seperti berkalat jelas kesihatan, spora-spora tersebut dibebaskan melalui liang-liang yang berwarna putih atau perang yang pudar.
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Ganoderma ini paling banyak digunakan sebagai ubat kerana mengandungi bahan aktif germanium organik hingga 2.000ppm dan terdiri daripada 6 kultivar yang dapat dibedakan dari bentuk spora dan warna tubuh, buah kuning, hijau, putih, hitam dan unggu.
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GANODERMA APPLANATUM
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Ia merupakan Ling Zhi yang terulung dalam legenda ialah cendawan yang tidak mengandung tangkai yang tumbuh di serata dunia malah pernah mencatat rekod berat sebanyak 12 paun.
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GANODERMA TSUGAE
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Ia kelihatan seakan-akan G.Lucidium melainkan permukaan cendawannya kelihatan lebih berkilat dan berwarna jingga-kemerahan yang terang.
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GANODERMA OREGONENSE
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Namanya yang membayangkan segolongan masyarakat tempatan di bahagian barat Amerika Utara. Ia tidak dikaji untuk aktiviti perubatan dan ia diberikan tanggapan bahawa mempunyai sifat-sifat yang seakan-akan spesies yang lain.
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KANDUNGAN KIMIA DAN NILAI PERUBATAN
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Di dalam teori perubatan tradisional cina, Ganoderma adalah antara kumpulan teratas. Ganoderma dapat memelihara kesihatan keseluruhan, awet muda dan ia tidak meninggalkan sebarang kesan sampingan biarpun diambil untuk jangka masa yang panjang.
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Penyelidikan perubatan moden turut membuktikan bahawa Ganoderma bukan penawar segala penyakit, tetapi peranan utamanya adalah untuk membantu memulihkan fungsi organ dalam badan yang hilang keseimbangan, seolah-olah Ganoderma dapat menyembuhkan pelbagai jenis penyakit.
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Melalui Analisis Saintifik Moden, Terdapat 200 Elemen Aktif Di Dalam Ganoderma.
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A) Triterpenoids: Menolong meningkatkan sistem penghadaman, mengurangkan kolesterol dan lemak neutral di dalam badan. Ia juga efektif kerana dapat mengurangkan kesakitan, membuang bahan toksik dan lain-lain.
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B) Adenosin: Tahap kolestrol rendah dan kurang lemak. Melancarkan peredaran darah, mengawal metabolisme dan justeru itu anda kekal sihat dan bertenaga.
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C) Polisakarida: Membantu membersihkan toksin yang tersimpan didalam badan, menguatkan daya keupayaan pemulihan badan, mengubah sel tidak normal kepada sel normal, meningkatkan sitem kalis (imun) badan sekaligus memelihara kesihatan keseluruhan.
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Telah dikenal pasti bahawa ia dapat mengubati kebanyakan penyakit repiratori seperti asma kronik, bronkitis dan masalah sinus. Satu kajian telah dijalankan di China pada tahun 1970-an, di mana 2000 pesakit bronkitis diberi sirap Ling Zhi dalam bentuk pil selama dua minggu.
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Keputusan yang didapati ialah 60 – 90% menunjukkan pemulihan penyakit tersebut termasuk selera makan bertambah baik. Ujian di Jepun pula menunjukkan pemulihan 50 – 90%. Pada umumnya selain penyakit-penyakit di atas, Ling Zhi dipercayai dapat mengatasi masalah kesihatan seperti kolestrol yang tinggi, insomnia, diabetes, masalah hati, arthiris dan melegakan kesakitan.
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Walaupun Ling Zhi telah digunakan sebanyak 300 kali dalam dos yang direkomenkan tetapi kesan toksik masih tidak dapat diperhatikan. Pengambilan Ling Zhi pada permulaannya akan menyebabkan rasa pening, sengal tulang, kulit bermasalah, cirit-birit atau sembelit. Ini merupakan tanda bahawa toksin telah dibersihkan dari badan. Apabila semua toksin dibersihkan dari badan, keadaan tersebut akan pulih dan tidak akan wujud lagi.
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ANALISIS KOMPONEN KIMIA UMUM LING ZHI
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KOMPONEN KIMIA PERATUSAN ( % )
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KARBOHIDRAT 43.1
PROTEIN 26.4
ABU 19.0
POLISAKARIDA 11
AIR 6.9
LEMAK 4.5
GENTIAN 0.1
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ANALISIS BAHAN BUKAN ORGANIK LING ZHI
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BAHAN BUKAN ORGANIK MG / 100G
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FOSFORUS 4150
POTASSIUM 3590
MAGNESIUM 1030
KALSIUM 832
NATRIUM 375
ZAT BESI 82.6
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ANALISIS JENIS-JENIS VITAMIN LING ZHI
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JENIS VITAMIN MG / 100G
NIACIN 61.90
B2 17.10
B1 3.49
B6 0.71
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HABITAT
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Ramai orang mengetahui tentang kesan Ganoderma, tetapi hanya segelintir sahaja menyedari bahawa Ganoderma memerlukan persekitaran yang panas dan lembap, suhu antara 26 – 27 darjah Celsius untuk tumbuh.
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Justeru itu, banyak Ganoderma yang tumbuh liar di hutan Malaysia. Sebenarnya Ganoderma mudah ditemui di sekitar lingkungan kita, ia biasa dilihat tumbuh pada pohon yang masih hidup ataupun yang sudah mati. Biasanya paling banyak ditemui tumbuh pada tanaman angsana ( Pterocarpus Indica ) atau kenari ( Canarium Commune ) seperti yang dinyatakan oleh seorang peneliti Ganoderma Cecep Suryana di Kebun Raya Bogor.
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Kadang kala Ganoderma juga ada pada tanaman palem ( Palmae ). Daripada hasil penelitian Kebun Raya Bogor selama 4 tahun akhirnya menyimpulkan bahawa Ganoderma Enedemik tumbuh pada tanaman yang masih hidup. Cecep Suryana juga menyatakan bahawa sifat hidup ia yang epitit, kita biasa perhatikan pada bahagian bawah setiap pohon yang ditumbuhi Ganoderma anggota kelas Basidiomycetes itu perlahan – lahan akan lapuk.
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Walau bagaimanapun, untuk mendapatkan Ganoderma yang tumbuh semulajadi manusia terpaksa memanjat tinggi ke atas gunung dan menjelajah ke dalam hutan rimba yang tebal demi mendapatkan cendawan yang misteri ini. Tetapi pada zaman teknologi yang moden ini, manusia tidak perlu lagi bersusah payah untuk mendapatkannya.
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Dengan adanya teknologi moden kejuruteraan-bio, kini ia telah ditanam secara komersil di dalam rumah hijau di kebanyakan negara seperti China, Jepun dan Amerika Syarikat.
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GANODERMA DI INDONESIA
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Ganoderma termasuk salah satu jamur kayu yang telah lama diketahui wujud di Indonesia. Namun ia hanya mula diteliti di Kebun Raya Bogor pada tahun 1993. Pada tahun 1997, telah diketahui wujud 21 jenis Ganoderma di Indonesia seperti yang dinyatakan di bawah:
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G. Australe G. Mastosporum G. Asperulatum G. Applanatum G. Amboinense G. Bruggemanii G. Chlalceum G. Dejongii G. Dankii G. Hoehlenianum G. Leytense G. Petchii G. Philipii G. Torpium G. Trulla G. Subtornicatum G. Subresinosum G. Trulliforme G. Vanheurnii G. Weberianum G. Williamsianum Di Indonesia Ganoderma ini dijumpai di Jawa( Kebun Raya Bogor, Gunung Gede, Kabupaten Garut ), Riau , Pergununggan Kerinci, Bali, Lombok dan Sumbawa.
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Ganoderma dapat ditemui mulai dari ketinggian 300m daripada hingga dataran tinggi. GANODERMA DI CHINA Ling Zhi ialah nama bagi Genoderma dalam bahasa Cina sejak 2000 tahun lalu iaitu pada dinasti Shu.
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Pada zaman itu Ling Zhi mempunyai nilai yang sangat tinggi dan hanya diperuntukkan untuk kegunaan golongan atasan atau maharaja-maharaja sahaja. Ini kerana Ling Zhi dipercayai sangat berkhasiat dan berupaya menyembuhkan pelbagai penyakit iaitu mulai dari penyakit ringan hingga ke penyakit yang boleh membawa maut seperti kanser.
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Ini telah menyebabkan masyarakat China mengelarkan Ling Zhi sebagai ‘Si Ubat Dewa’. Menurut sejarah China, cendawan ini ditemui oleh seorang petani yang bernama Seng Nong yang juga digelar ‘Petani Yang Suci’.
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Menurut beliau, Ling Zhi merupakan sejenis tumbuhan yang dicuba olehnya. Beliau telah menghasilkan sebuah manuskrip yang berjudul Herbal Seng Nong Klasik yang dikatakan merupakan material medica China yang terulung. Malahan pada masa ini, manuskrip ini masih dianggap sebagai asal atau panduan kepada ubat tradisional China dan ubat tradisional timur pada umumnya.
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PENYEDIAAN GANODERMA DENGAN KAEDAH TRASIONAL
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Pada zaman dahulu masyarakat menggunakan kaedah tradisional dalam proses penyediaan Ling Zhi kerana tidak mempunyai peralatan yang moden terutamanya mastarakat China. Masyarakat China menggunakan cara merebus seperti mana merebus herba-herba yang lain demi mendapatkan ekstrak.
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Secara tradisionalnya, Ling Zhi dapat disediakan dengan menjadikan cendawannya sebagai serbuk dan direbus pada suhu yang hampir mendidih selama dua hingga tiga jam ataupun sehingga paras air yang asal berkurangan sebayak dua per tiga.Teh itu kemudiannya ditapis dan ia boleh dimaniskan dengan madu tetapi sebaik-baiknya elakkan penggunaan gula biasa.
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Manakala serbuk yang kelihatan biasa seperti ‘bola bulu yang basah’ boleh digunakan semula sehingga warna tehnya menjadi pudar iaitu lebih kurang sebanyak tiga kali. Bagi mengurangkan rasa pahit teh tersebut, sedikit esen laichee (fructus lycii) dan glukosa natural boleh ditambahkan.
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Ekstrak laichee bukan sahaja boleh memperbaiki rasa teh Ling Zhi malah ia juga memberi manfaat kepada organ hati. Namun ada juga cara tradisional yang lebih memudahkan iaitu Ling Zhi akan direbus di dalam air untuk beberapa jam ataupun dibiarkan direndam di dalam alkohol selama beberapa minggu supaya kandungan yang aktif itu dapat larut di dalam alkohol dan ia dapat diminum.
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PENYEDIAAN GANODERMA DENGAN KAEDAH MODEN
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Untuk meperolehi Ganoderma dengan kualiti yang baik dan kuantiti yang banyak, faedah moden diperkenalkan dalam proses penanaman, pengeluaran ataupun proses penyediaan seperti yang dinyatakan di bawah.
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KAEDAH PENANAMAN
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1) Kaedah Tisu Kultur
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Penghasilan semula sejuta kuntum Ganoderma daripada satu Ganoderma induk dan memilih hanya terbaik.
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2) Kaedah Penanaman Organik
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Tiada bahan kimia, racun serangga dan hormon; hanya bahan semulajadi seperti sekam padi dan gentian kayu digunakan dalam penanaman. Kaedah ini hanya mengambil masa tiga bulan untuk membolehkan Ganoderma dipetik, sedangkan negara lain memerlukan tempoh selama enam bulan atau lebih.
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3) Susunan Secara Menggantung
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Sebagai alternatif terhadap penanaman. Ganoderma di atas tanah, kaedah gantungan Ganoderma membantu mengelak penyerapan bahan-bahan penyerapan bahan-bahan yang tidak diingini.
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TEKNIK PENGELUARAN
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1) Pemprosesan Penyejukan Semula Jadi
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Semua Ganoderma tidak melalui proses haba. Jadi elemen aktif Ganoderma tidak terjejas sekaligus mengekalkan kesemua 100% bahagian berkhasiat Ganoderma.
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2) Pengasingan Tiber Menggunakan teknik khas yang dimajukan oleh syarikat untuk membuang tiber kurang efektif daripada Ganoderma dan hanya bahagian yang paling berkhasiat dipilih spora.
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3) Menghasilkan Serbuk Spora Hasil teknik yang unik untuk menghancurkan selaput keras spora, dan mengisar kepada bentuk sebuk spora bersaiz mikro. Kesemua elemen aktif Ganoderma dipelihara melalui proses ini.
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PRODUK YANG DIHASILKAN
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Masyarakat amat mempercayai cendawan yang digelar Ling Zhi ini amat berkhasiat untuk manusia. Faktor ini telah menyumbang kepada menjadikan Ling Zhi ini dijadikan produk yang mempunyai nilai komersial yang tinggi. Kini Ling Zhi telah dijadikan produk yang komersial oleh kebanyakan negara misalnya Jepun, China, Taiwan, Korea, Amerika Syarikat dan juga di Asia Tenggara.
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Ekstrak Ling Zhi boleh didapati dalam pelbagai bentuk seperti kapsul dan pil. Di samping makanan dan minuman kesihatan, Ganoderma juga dapat menghasilkan produk penjagaan diri untuk mengelakan orang ramai daripada pengambilan bahan kimia dan toksin yang berlebihan ketika memberus gigi, membasuh rambut dan mandi serta pada masa yang sama memelihara kesihatan diri.
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CENKUDU ( CENDAWAN MERAH + MENGKUDU + MADU )
JUS CENKUDU
KOPI CENKUDUTEH
CENKUDUCOKLAT
KOKO CENKUDU
UBAT GIGI CENKUDUGEL
MANDIAN
SYAMPOO RAMBUT




Khamis, November 26, 2009

Even the dirt is imported, at hi-tech mushroom farm

South Australia is now home to the world's most technologically advanced mushroom farm.
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Mushroom farmer Doug Shirippa has invested $50 million building a state of the art mushroom plant, employing 200 staff.
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It's one and a half times the size of the MCG, comprising 30 electronically-monitored cool rooms for growing.
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Did you know that Australia produces 60 thousand tonnes of mushrooms a year for the domestic market? Mushrooms are also the second most valuable horticultural crop on Australia's fresh market. (Annabelle Homer)

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The technology is from Holland, and the dirt the mushrooms grow in is imported from Ireland and Germany. Mr Shirripa says it's a big investment but it's worth it.
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"It's been phenomenal," he says.

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"Going back 25 years ago, the per capita consumption was about 1.6 kilos per head.

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"We're now about 3.1 kgs per head, so it's been a phenomenal growth in Australia." -ABC.net

Khamis, November 19, 2009

Shiitake Mushroom-and-Fresh Herb Stuffing

INGREDIENTS
  • .One 21-inch baguette, cut into 1-inch cubes (10 cups)
  • 1 stick unsalted butter
  • 1 medium yellow onion, cut into 1/4-inch dice
  • 1 celery rib, cut into 1/4-inch dice
  • 1 teaspoon chopped sage leaves
  • 1 teaspoon thyme leaves
  • 1 pound Shiitake mushrooms, stems discarded and caps thinly sliced
  • Kosher salt and freshly ground pepper
  • 2 1/2 cups low-sodium vegetable broth1 large egg
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DIRECTIONS
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Preheat the oven to 375°. Lightly butter a 9-by-13-inch baking dish.
On a large rimmed baking sheet, toast the baguette cubes for about 15 minutes, tossing once halfway through, until lightly golden and dry.
Transfer the bread to a large bowl.
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In a very large skillet, melt 4 tablespoons of the butter. Add the onion and celery and cook over moderate heat until softened, about 8 minutes.
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Add the sage and thyme and cook until fragrant, about 1 minute. Scrape into the bowl with the bread and wipe out the skillet.
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Melt the remaining 4 tablespoons of butter in the skillet. Add the mushrooms and cook over moderately high heat until tender and browned, about 8 minutes. Season with salt and pepper. Scrape the mushrooms into the bowl with the bread.
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In a medium bowl, whisk the vegetable broth with the egg. Pour over the bread mixture and add 2 teaspoons of kosher salt and 1/2 teaspoon of pepper.
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Toss until the bread soaks up the liquid. Scrape into the prepared baking dish and cover with foil. Refrigerate for at least 1 hour or overnight.
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Preheat the oven to 375°. Bake the stuffing for about 30 minutes, until it is hot throughout. Remove the foil and bake for about 30 minutes longer, until the top is lightly golden.
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Serve hot or warm.

Isnin, November 16, 2009

Eksperimen Cendawan

Salam sejahtera.
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Perkongsian berita mengenai teknologi pertanian untuk pengusaha cendawan seluruh Malaysia.
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Eksperimen cendawan dengan teknologi Kitosan organik sudahpun berjalan lancar 2 minggu yang lalu dan hasilnya yang amat lumayan dengan kos yang rendah dan mampu menghalang jangkitan penyakit di samping mempercepatkan pengeluaran cendawan dengan kualiti lebih tinggi.
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Berikut adalah rekod imej yang sempat kami rakamkan semasa lawatan ke tapak eksperimen di Gombak, Selangor:
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Hasil keluaran cendawan yang disembur Kitosan
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Cendawan dengan ukuran hampir mencecah 8 inci.
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Saiz pengeluaran yang berlipat kali ganda.
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Pengarah Urusan Aizat Agrotech saudara Ir. Shaffie di Gombak, Selangor amat puas hati dengan hasil keluaran cendawan yang meningkat lebih lumayan.
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Dapatkan berita penuh eksperimen cendawan dengan Kitosan di laman web http://super-insi.blogspot.com/
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Selamat maju jaya diucapkan kepada pengusaha cendawan seluruh Malaysia!
Kami menyokong penuh usaha gigih anda dalam bidang pertanian. Terima kasih dari kami.

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-- SUPER INSI ENTERPRISE (RA0017247-T)

Jumaat, November 13, 2009

3 Jenis Cendawan Pemangkin Sistem Imun

Terdapat beberapa jenis cendawan atau fungus yang boleh memberi manfaat kepada kesihatan kepada sesiapa yang mengambilnya. Pada masa ini semakin banyak kajian dan penyelidikan dilakukan terhadap cendawan-cendawan yang telah banyak banyak digunakan oleh orang zaman dahulu untuk memperbaiki kualiti kesihatan mereka.
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Berikut ialah tiga jenis cendawan atau fungus yang banyak digunakan untuk mempertingkat kualiti kesihatan iaitu Ganoderma, Agaricus dan Cordyceps.
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Ganoderma
Ganiderma Lucidum juga dikenali dengan nama Lingzhi di kalangan orang Cina ataupun Reishi di kalangan orang Jepun. Cendawan ini banyak digunakan dalam perubatan tradisional orang Jepun dan China.

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Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) contohnya telah menggunakan cendawan ini dalam sistem perubatannya sejak 2000 tahun dahulu untuk meningkatkan tenaga, daya ingatan, memanjangkan umur dan melambatkan kesan penenuaan.
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Ia adalah sejenis cendawan yang hidup pada kayu yang telah mati. Cendawan ini mempunyai rasa yang pahit dan tidak digunakan di dalam masakan. Walau bagaimanapun, ada juga yang menjadikan ia sebagai teh.
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Banyak kajian yang telah dijalankan mendapati ganoderma telah menunjukkan keberkesanannya dalam membantu mempertingkat sistem imun apabila seseorang itu semakin berusia. Kajian-kajian ini mendapati penggunaan ganoderma berupaya untuk meningkatkan aliran darah, memperbaiki sistem saraf, meningkatkan peluang untuk sembuh daripada barah, meningkatkan sistem imun dan mempunyai kesan anti oksida yang tinggi.
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Keupayaan ganoderma untuk membantu merawat barah disebabkan oleh agen anti kanser iaitu polysakarid dan germanium yang terdapat di dalamnya, ia membantu mempertingkatkan dan menyelaras sistem endoktrin yang meningkatkan peredaran darah dan menghapuskan radikal bebas.
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Mengikut kajian, ia juga boleh mengurangkan kesan toksik yang terhasil daripada sesi kemotreapi dan radioterapi.
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Agaricus
Agaricus (Cendawan Butang) ialah cendawan yang berasal daripada Brazil dan ramai penyelidik yang percaya bahawa ia antara cendawan yang sangat menakjubkan yang pernah ditemui. Cendawan ini semakin banyak digunakan sebagai makanan tambahan oleh mereka yang mahu meningkatkan sistem imun mereka dan ia juga mengandungi beta glucan yang tinggi.
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Beta glucan ialah sejenis polisakarid yang ditemui dalam cendawan yang mempunyai khasiat dari segi kesihatan. Beta glucan diketahui dapat menjadikan sistem imun lebih peka dan seimbang.
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Kajian-kajian yang dijalankan mendapati ia boleh meningkatkan sistem imun tubuh dan juga sebagai anti kanser. Ia meningkatkan pengeluaran interferon dan interleukin, mengurangkan tekanan darah tinggi, gula di dalam darah, tahap kolesterol dan kesan arterioklorosis, anti radang dan anti alergi.
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Cordyceps
Cordyceps juga dikenali sebagai nama Chinese caterpillar fungus. Ini disebabkan oleh cordyceps adalah jenis parasit yang hidup dan membesar pada larva ulat bulu. Pada zaman dahulu orang cina menganggap cordyceps sebagai serangga yang hidup pada musim sejuk dan bertukar menjadi tumbuhan pada musim panas.
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Cordyceps telah digunakan sebagai ubatan herba untuk merawat pelbagai jenis penyakit. Ia dianggap mempunyai keseimbangan di antara Ying dan Yang oleh pengamal perubatan TCM (Traditional Chinese Medicine).
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Secara tradisinya cordyceps telah digunakan untuk mereka yang mempunyai masalah jantung, pernafasan, membekalkan tenaga dan juga untuk tujuan melengahkan kesan penenuaan.
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Mengikut kajian, cordyceps meningkatkan peredaran darah ke organ-organ tubuh terutamanya bahagian otak.
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Cordyceps juga didapati bioleh mempertingkatkan penggunaan oksigen oleh tubuh badan serta membantu mereka yang mempunyai masalah asma dan bronkitis. Ia mengandungi antioksidan yang menghentikan kerosakan selular serta menghalang radang daripada terjadi.
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Oleh kerana banyak faedah dari segi kesihatan yang diperolehi daripada cordyceps, pada masa kini semakin banyak kajian dan penyelidikan dijalankan untuk mengetahui keberkesannya dalam membendung dan merawat penyakit kronik daripada terjadi terutamanya kanser.
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Walaupun cendawan mempunyai banyak manfaat untuk kesihatan, mereka yang mempunyai masalah kesihatan dan penyakit kronik masih perlu untuk berjumpa doktor untuk mendapatkan rawatan bagi penyakit mereka.

Khamis, November 12, 2009

Barangan Penanaman Cendawan ke Sabah

Assalamualaikum dan salam sejahtera.
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Alhamdulillah, sebentar tadi baru sahaja poskan barangan penanaman cendawan seperti plastik, cap, neck stopper dan benih cendawan ke Sabah.
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Terima kasih diucapkan kepada Cik Bibiana dan dijangkakan akan sampai dalam sehari dua lagi.
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Saya juga sedang sediakan penghantaran untuk 4 paket benih juga ke Sabah kepada En. Salam.
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Beliau pernah memesan sebanyak 3000 set cap, neck dan stopper beberapa bulan lepas dan sekarang ni bisnes cendawan beliau semakin berkembang. Selamat maju jaya diucapkan kepada semua pengusaha cendawan di Malaysia.

Sabtu, Oktober 24, 2009

2 sickened after meal with wild mushrooms

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NEWTON - A Newton woman picking mushrooms for a home-cooked meal accidentally chose a dangerous kind that left her and her adult son in intensive care, authorities said yesterday.
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The woman and her son, whom Newton officials would not identify, were in good condition at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center yesterday, five days after eating what some officials suspect was a variety of Amanita phalloides mushroom, also called the death cap.
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The poisonous mushrooms were apparently picked and eaten last Thursday in an Oak Hill neighborhood near the woman’s home, said Newton Health Commissioner David Naparstek.
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City officials made the case public at Mayor David Cohen’s weekly press conference in order to warn the public about the dangers of eating wild mushrooms, which, if poisonous, can cause liver and kidney damage and occasionally death.
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The wet cool summer and fall has made for a particularly abundant crop of wild mushrooms across the state, Naparstek said.
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“The message we want to send is that the mushrooms in your backyard can be very pretty, but also very deadly,’’ he said. “Don’t eat them.’’
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The woman was Ukrainian by origin, and may have had experience picking wild mushrooms, said Newton officials.
Mushroom foraging is a popular hobby in Eastern Europe, where families pass down mushroom hunting lore from parent to child, said Russ Cohen, a member of the Boston Mycological Club and author of “Wild Plants I Have Known . . . and Eaten.’’
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Amanita is “very, very nasty’’ and among the most poisonous of local mushrooms, a genus accounting for more than 90 percent of all reported wild mushroom fatalities, he said. Some varieties are so toxic that even mushroom experts avoid them, Cohen said.
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Amateur New England foragers enjoy a mushroom season that lasts from roughly July Fourth to Columbus Day, and most stick to easily identifiable edible mushrooms, Cohen said: morels in the spring, yellow chanterelles in the summer, and oyster mushrooms in the fall.
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Wild mushroom poisoning remains fairly rare.
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The Regional Center for Poison Control, based at Children’s Hospital Boston, said that of the 195,000 calls it has handled since 2006 from Massachusetts, only 630 have been about potentially dangerous mushrooms.
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Of those calls, 136 cases were referred to a health care provider for further treatment, said the center’s spokeswoman Colleen Longfellow.
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Callers are encouraged to snap a cellphone photo of a questionable mushroom, as well as collect a sample in a bag for further study. An e-mailed photo of a potentially deadly mushroom can be examined by one of the agency’s mushroom specialists, called mycologists, often within an hour, she said.
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“We tell people they should absolutely avoid picking wild mushrooms,’’ said Longfellow. “And anyone with any concerns should call us immediately.’’
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Homeowners with small children who want to remove wild mushrooms from their yards can do so with a shovel and a bag, but should wash their hands carefully afterward to prevent accidental hand-mouth contact or ingestion, Longfellow said.
The death cap mushroom is found worldwide, and historians believe it was used to assassinate the ancient Roman emperor Claudius, said Dr. John Halamka, a consulting mycologist with the poison control agency.
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He said that while most toxic mushrooms produce stomach distress in a patient within two hours, the death cap doesn’t produce symptoms for up to 24 hours. Liver and kidney distress, and possibly failure, can follow if swift medical attention is not sought, he said. -
The Boston Globe

Selasa, Oktober 06, 2009

GLOWING MUSHROOM PICTURES: Psychedelic New Species Seen

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October 5, 2009--Glowing nonstop in the Brazilian rain forest, the newfound mushroom Mycena luxaeterna (pictured both in daylight, top, and in the dark) is indeed a source of eternal light, as its Latin name inspired by verses from Mozart's "Requiem" implies.
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The tiny mushroom is one of 7 new species of glow-in-the-dark fungi found around the world, bringing the total known to 71, according to a study that appeared October 5 in the journal Mycologia.
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San Francisco State University's Dennis Desjardin and colleagues scouted for mushrooms during new moons, in rain forests so dark they often couldn't see their hands in front of their faces, he said.But "when you look down at the ground, it's like looking up at the sky," Desjardin said.
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"Every little 'star' was a little mushroom it was just fantastic.
"M. luxaeterna has a distinctive sticky gel on its stem that probably keeps it moist during the heat of the day. Unwitting insects get trapped in this natural fly paper, said Desjardin, who discovered the fungi with the University of Sao Paulo's Cassius V. Stevani.(See pictures of glowing mushrooms announced in 2006.)
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Christine Dell'Amore
—Photograph courtesy Cassius V. Stevani, Chemistry Institute, University of Sao Paulo

Jumaat, September 25, 2009

Demand for shiitakes mushrooms

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The humorous phrase "shiitake happens" pops up on T-shirts, mugs and aprons on Web sites and in kitchen boutiques, but this is where it really does. And it's fair to say the industry's mushrooming.
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Shiitake mushrooms still carry the exotic label, but these are deemed "local" for chefs from Memphis to Jackson to New Orleans.
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They could hardly be fresher, harvested just hours before, their gray brown caps curling over creamy white gills at Mississippi Natural Products.
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September is National Mushroom Month. But Martinville mushroom grower Danny Hayman counters October would be a better pick, since that's when production picks up. "September isn't real good," he says with a chuckle.
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At peak production, November through March, Mississippi Natural Products handles 1,400 to 1,500 pounds of shiitake mushrooms a week. Mississippi Natural Products, formed seven years ago through Alcorn State, is now a 19-member co-op of shiitake mushroom farmers with a central facility for processing and distribution. With five years under its belt here, its piece-by-piece renovation has turned a former Buddy Jean's plant into shiitake central.
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"When we started out, we were doing 50 blocks a day. Now, we do 400 blocks a day," says Wanda Millis, president and CEO of Mississippi Natural Products.
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Those "blocks" are this business' building blocks - the five-pound bags of sawdust, nutrients and spawn that can produce seven to eight crops of shiitake mushrooms apiece.
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This is where the blocks are formed, inoculated and incubated for 10 weeks. They're then picked up by the growers, who grow the mushrooms within 10 days and sell them back to the co-op for distribution. The central facility also has a small growing room for quality control.
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Each stage of the process goes on here - from the piles of sawdust out back to the sorting room and refrigerated storage close to the front.
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"We buy the sawdust from mills and mix it with nutrients - that's kind of your secret formula," says Millis, as workers bag the mixture. Water's a vital ingredient, too, with moisture content tested for each two-cubic-yard batch that goes into the custom-built mixer.
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"Mushrooms are about 80 percent water anyway, so you need to make sure you have enough." Alcorn State researched the best formula for Mississippi's humidity.
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"Before this, we were growing herbs on a small scale. This was so successful, we let the herbs grow and just do the mushrooms now."
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The five-pound bags are then wheeled into a retort, a giant pressure cooker that, over four to five hours at 250 degrees, will sterilize the medium.
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Shiitake mycelium, also known as spawn, is added to cooled bags in the lab, then they're sealed and lined up on trays for a 10-week incubation. A small filter lets loose the carbon dioxide as the mycelium feeds; the block turns from brown to white and back to a darker, speckled brown with a crust. At this point, it resembles a bagged brick of heavenly hash cookie dough. "
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You'd be amazed the people who think it's a cake," Millis says.
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At that stage, the grower gets them, rips off the bag, hoses off the waste product called "mushroom pee" and the shiitakes get to growing.
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The mushrooms are grown indoors, in environmentally controlled rooms, with optimum light, temperature and moisture - a cycle of fluctuation and constancy.
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"We fool Mother Nature," sums up sales manager Sharon Newsom.
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Harvested mushrooms are grown and brought back twice a week. They're sorted by size and to a certain extent, looks, with less attractive 'shrooms destined for the dehydrator. Chefs like the premium larger ones, which can be grilled for a meat substitute.
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Small ones, marketed as "baby takiis," have found favor, too. Dried mushrooms are another market. "Fresh to Fry," prepackaged baby takiis and an Oriental batter seasoning packet, is due out in October.
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The hearty mushroom is a healthful food, with benefits ranging from antiviral and anti-cancer to antioxidants and lowering cholesterol. They're low in calories and can be a meat substitute for vegetarians.
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Taste and texture are their winning points.
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"It's a nutty, woodsy type flavor," says Newsom, who probably eats them at home at least once a week, and whose husband is an even bigger fan. "He loves them sauteed and any other way." Because of the shiitake's intense and earthy flavor, she advises people to use half the amount of shiitakes when substituting for button mushrooms in recipes.
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In the metro area, find Mississippi Natural Products at McDade's and Brookshire's. Restaurants using its shiitake mushrooms include Char, Bravo, Sal & Mookie's, Parker House, Walker's Drive-In, Fairview Inn, Atlantica, Bon Ami and the Auditorium Restaurant.
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"It's a great product - I love it," says Nate Ballard, executive chef at The Auditorium Restaurant, who's been using the shiitakes about three years. There, shiitake mushrooms add texture and earthiness to the restaurant's signature shrimp and grits.
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Local sourcing is important, Ballard says. "When it comes to food, it's better when it comes from the people around you, because it's going to be fresher. And everything tastes better when you know that the people that are making it are good people and are from the same place that you are." -Clarionledger

Jumaat, September 18, 2009

Selamat Hari Raya Aidilfitri


Buat seluruh umat Islam di Malaysia mahupun di serata dunia, saya dari team Cendawan Global mengucapkan Selamat Hari Raya Aidilfitri, maaf zahir dan batin jika ada kesilapan dan kesalahan selama ini. Semoga ikatan kekeluargaan kekal abadi.


Rabu, September 16, 2009

Ebook Rahsia Pelan Bisnes Cendawan




Asslamualaikum dan salam sejahtera.
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Sebagai menghargai sokongan anda terhadap bisnes cendawan, saya berikan kepada anda satu ebook percuma yang diperolehi daripada rakan siber. Anda boleh download ia di sini.
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Diharapkan ebook ini menjadi rujukan penting buat anda yang bercadang menjadikan cendawan satu bisnes di masa hadapan. Terima kasih

Isnin, September 14, 2009

PDA Kelapa Muda

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Terima kasih kepada peminat klasik PDA Kelapa Muda, banyak email saya terima dari rakan pengusaha cendawan, penemuan ini sebenarnya dibuat oleh Jabatan Pertanian Sabah, bukan saya yang cipta. Caranya mudah saja...
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500ml air kelapa muda
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20gm Agar-agar tanpa warna
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Masak--campur/gaul hingga sebati masukkan lagi 500 ml air suling.
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- Tuang ke dalam tabung uji dan selepas tu masukkan dalam autoclave atau kukus 3-4 jam.
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Pastikan semasa mengukus tabung uji diletak secara menyinding.
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Saya pasti sdra tahu kandungan makanan dalam air kelapa adalah nutrien kepada cendawan.
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SELAMAT MENCUBA........SEMUGA SUKSES - Dipetik dari blog Sipitang Mushroom



Ahad, September 13, 2009

Cendawan Jana Pendapatan Lumayan



Cendawan tiram kelabu mampu menjana pendapatan yang lumayan sekiranya diusahakan dengan bersungguh-sungguh secara komersial serta dalam skala yang besar. Ini telah dibuktikan oleh En. Syukri Bin Ahmad bersama isteri beliau Puan Zaharah Bte Jidin di Hulu Selangor.
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Beliau yang berpengalaman dalam penanaman cendawan selama 16 tahun berkata perusahaan tanaman cendawan mempunyai masa hadapan yang baik kerana mempunyai permintaan yang berterusan serta produk ini boleh dipelbagaikan.
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Pada masa ini beliau mengusahakan kira-kira 120,000 beg cendawan setiap masa dengan dibantu oleh 4 orang pekerja sepenuh masa. Dengan pengeluaran hasil cendawan tiram kelabu sebanyak 150 kg sehari dan harga RM8.00 bagi setiap kilogram En Syukri mampu tersenyum puas kerana usaha keras beliau selama ini telah mendatangkan pulangan yang lumayan.




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Bercakap mengenai pemasaran beliau selanjutnya berkata "pasaran tiada masalah, kerana cendawan yang dikeluarkan oleh syarikat kami berkualiti serta mendapat permintaan dari pasar borong serta kedai-kedai berhampiran"
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Selain mengeluarkan cendawan segar beliau juga menawarkan jualan beg cendawan yang telah siap dengan benih cendawan dengan harga RM1.20 bagi setiap beg. -www.sinartani.blogspot.com

Sabtu, September 12, 2009

Penat posa...











Rabu, September 09, 2009

Super Mushrooms Fight Swine Flu Virus

By W. Gifford-Jones, M.D.
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A reader from Winnipeg inquired, “What’s the best natural way to boost immunity against the swine flu virus (SFV)?”
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It’s a good question, as currently this virus is killing small numbers of people. But some researchers believe that H1N1 will return in a few weeks with a vengeance, killing thousands of North Americans.
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If this happens, can it be possible that a group of powerful medicinal mushrooms can decrease the risk of succumbing to this virus? But first, during an epidemic, never forget these basic precautions. Bow like the Japanese rather than shaking hands.
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Handshaking has always been an unhealthy habit, a prime way to spread infection whether or not there’s an epidemic of SFV. Get further protection by washing your hands frequently with soap and water. Keep your distance from those who are coughing or sneezing, particularly when they don’t cover their mouths.
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One single sneeze fires out 40,000 infectious droplets at the speed of 100 miles an hour! Minimize stress as it increases cortisol and the adrenal hormones, which decrease resistance to infection. Be sure to get adequate sleep, as those who are tired are more susceptible to infection. Stop smoking. There’s overwhelming evidence that smokers are less resistant to viral and other infections. Eat smart.
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This means a well-balanced diet including colorful fruits and vegetables, such as tomatoes, carrots, spinach, broccoli, mushrooms, apples, berries, cherries, and plums. These are loaded with vitamins, minerals, and protective phytonutrients that bolster the body’s defenses against disease. And add protein from wholesome fish, meat, and poultry. But can powerful medicinal mushrooms increase immunity?
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Specific mushrooms have been used in the Orient for hundreds of years to support the immune system as an aid in fighting infection. Researchers have discovered that some of these mushrooms are better than others in building up immunity. But let the buyer beware, as you have to be careful about the type of mushrooms you purchase.
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Investigation shows that some imported mushroom preparations from China contain only rice flour and nutmeg. Others produced in the United States were found to have few of the active ingredients required to increase immunity. What these preparations should have contained was a mushroom called Cordyceps sinensis.
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A natural mushroom product called ImmuneAssist 24/7 has been developed by a U.S. Nutraceutical company. ImmuneAssist 24/7 is prepared by a method called “hybridization” and contains Cordyceps sinensis plus five other super mushrooms.
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Hybridization isn’t the same as genetic modifications, such as cloning. Rather, it’s a traditional method of crossbreeding mushrooms to enhance their natural immune-stimulating powers. Research shows that the Full Spectrum Cordyceps sinensis hybrid has five times the potency of wild harvested Cordyceps sinensis.
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The other five mushrooms are also highly purified, making them rich with 200 immune enhancing polysaccharides, which stimulate the human immune response. This combination of powerful ingredients in ImmuneAssist 24/7 increases the activity of natural killer cells. And this super mushroom product also contains EGCG, the polyphenol compound found in green tea, which helps to keep viral particles from being able to multiply within cells and is effective against the H1N1 virus.
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No one can predict what H1N1 will do in the coming weeks. Some researchers believe that the virus will become resistant to the antiviral drug Tamiflu. If that happens all the more reason to boost your own immunity as it may be your first and most reliable defense. ImmuneAssist 24/7 is only available in the United States. It can be obtained by calling the toll-free number 800-877-2447.
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Dr. Gifford-Jones is a medical journalist with a private medical practice in Toronto. His Web site is Mydoctor.ca/gifford-jones
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Editor’s note: Another yeast-based immune system enhancer is EpiCor, which was presented in “How to Improve Your Immunity,” en.epochtimes.com/news/7-11-18/62089.html

Isnin, September 07, 2009

Make room for mushrooms

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Mushrooms are the most versatile fungi in any cooks arsenal. For those who seek an easy to cook, easy to season, complimentary ingredient that can be incorporated into a variety of dishes, the mushroom is an often overlooked and under appreciated accent.
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Mushrooms are also a great source of vital nutrients including Vitamin D, Riboflavin, Copper and Potassium. Aesthetically mushrooms comprise a range of variations, and while most recipes call for the use of sliced mushrooms, using whole mushrooms can add an appealing look to your dishes.
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Edible varieties of this fungus include button, cremini, portobello, shiitake, maitake, enoki, oyster, and chanterelle. The National Mushroom Council provides a wonderful chart detailing the differences between the mushrooms. Dried mushrooms are available year round. Mushrooms date back many centuries, and were first cultivated in Europe in France and later in England. Cultivation of mushrooms in the U.S. dates back to the early 19th century.
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Today mushrooms are commercially produced in virtually every state. Pennsylvania accounts for 61% of total U.S. production. Mushrooms will ideally be firm with a fresh, smooth appearance. The gills are a key factor in determining the richness of the flavor. A closed veil under the cap indicates a more delicate flavor, while an open veil and exposed gills mean a richer flavor.
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Bottled mushrooms like this variety pictured below from Dean & Deluca provide another alternative. Even mushroom rubs have become popular for use with meats and other dishes. The easiest way to prepare mushrooms is through the sauté.
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Using a sauté pan, place a pat of butter into a heated pan and allow the butter to melt avoiding burning. Add ¼ cup of marsala or red wine into the melted butter. Add sliced mushrooms seasoned with sea salt and coarse black pepper to the mixture. Move and turn the mushrooms in the pan frequently to ensure even cooking.
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Feel free to use all of the same type of mushroom or to mix them. The sautéed mushrooms can be used to accompany grilled meats, added to fresh pasta or eaten in a green salad once cooled. -Examiner.com

Sabtu, September 05, 2009

Serunding cendawan


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BAHAN-BAHAN:
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1kg cendawan tiram - potong halus
500 gm bawang merah - mayang
600 ml santan
3 sudu besar kerisik
2 helai daun kunyit
3 helai daun limau purut
4 kiub ikan bilis
Garam dan gula

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BAHAN KISAR:
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5 biji bawang putih
5 biji bawang besar
5 batang serai
3 cm lengkuas
3 cm halia
15 tangkai cili kering

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BAHAN REMPAH:

1 sudu besar biji ketumbar
1 sudu besar jintan manis
1 sudu besar jintan putih

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CARA MENYEDIAKAN:
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1. Tumiskan bawang merah yang dimayang sehingga garing. Kemudian masukkan bahan kisar dan tumis sehingga wangi.
2. Kemudian tuangkan santan, kerisik, bahan rempah, stok ikan bilis, daun kunyit dan daun limau purut.
3. Tambahkan garam dan gula secukup rasa. Kacau sehingga kering dengan menggunakan api kecil
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+Pesan saji
Kebiasaannya untuk membuat serunding cendawan ini memakan masa selama 7 jam

Khamis, September 03, 2009

Kari Siam Bercendawan

BAHAN-BAHAN:

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500 gm cendawan tiram
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500 gm daging ayam
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700 ml santan
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4 tangkai daun selasih
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5 tangkai terung pipit
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2 sudu besar rempah kari daging
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BAHAN A - MAYANG
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4 ulas bawang merah
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2 ulas bawang putih
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BAHAN B -KISAR
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5 ulas bawang merah
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3 ulas bawang putih
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6 tangkai cili padi
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4 tangkai cili merah
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2 batang serai
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1 sudu kecil lada hitam
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3 cm lengkuas
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BAHAN REMPAH:
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2 batang kulit kayu manis
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5 kuntum bunga cengkih
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4 kuntum bunga lawang
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CARA MENYEDIAKAN:
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1. Panaskan 150 ml santan di dalam kuali dan kacau perlahan-lahan sehingga naik minyak. Ambil minyak ini untuk menumis.
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2. Tumiskan bahan A sehingga wangi. Masukkan pula bahan B dan rempah kari daging. Tumiskan seketika sehingga garing.
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3. Kemudian tuangkan lebihan santan, bahan rempah serta daging ayam. Kacau rata.
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4.Masukkan gawam dan gula secukup rasa. Apabila kuah agak pekat, masukkan pula cendawan, daun selasih dan terung pipit. Kacau kuah sehingga pekat.

Isnin, Ogos 24, 2009

Cultivating mushrooms no easy task

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Humans are still moving, raggedly, from hunter-gatherer to farmer. Some of the organisms we eat, exploit or befriend - grains, trees, cattle, dogs - tamed readily. Kingdoms other than plant or animal are less tractable. Fungi have come under our rule only grudgingly and rarely.
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The familiar button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) has been cultivated for 300 years. But the most prized mushrooms are still hunted in the wildlands where they volunteer to grow; given the odd patterns of growth and the acute toxicity of some of them, the stakes are high.
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Taming mushrooms is a challenge because we're dealing with a huge, mostly invisible organism whose behavior we've barely begun to understand. What we see and eat is only the fruiting body of the fungus; most of its works - the mycelia - live underground, or in the leaf-litter layer of a forest, or inside the wood of a dead or live tree.
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Imagine trying to cultivate a tree when all you can see is its fruit, and you never know which acre of your orchard it will show up in.
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There are mushroom farms, such as Far West Fungi in Moss Landing (Monterey County), where founder John Garrone and his family grow several edible varieties.
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And there are fungus aficionados such as Ken Litchfield, whose mushroom cultivation course is being offered this fall at Oakland's Merritt College (see Resources). Litchfield and his students are trying to induce some of the wild-card mushrooms to behave more predictably.
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Under live oaks and madrones at the edge of the Merritt campus, Litchfield has set up mushroom beds with excelsior, wood chips and straw.
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"It's like a little hobbit village out here," he jokes. The largest structure is a straw-bale igloo; mushrooms will grow out of the straw in its humid interior.
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Mushrooms, Litchfield says, make their living in several ways: as symbiotes, linked to oaks and other trees; as parasites on living plants; or by decomposing dead organic matter. Some species can be either parasitic or symbiotic; others switch from one strategy to another during their life cycles.
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Opportunists
"Morels are opportunists," he explains. "That's the one that everyone wants to grow. They're not that hard to grow, but getting them to fruit predictably is a problem." Morels pop up after wildland fires; Litchfield suspects their growth is stimulated by smoke. This fall his class will make its own smoke extract and apply it experimentally to a morel pit.
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As chanterelles do with oaks, Litchfield and his students have a symbiosis with Far West. The farm uses blocks of compressed oak sawdust, inoculated with spores. The Merritt classes get the blocks, waning in productivity, that Far West is ready to recycle. Techniques that work in Merritt's experiments are passed along to the farm.
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Home mushroom-growing kits have been around for a while. Far West's Kiera Ilusorio says the shiitake kit is the biggest seller for home growers at the store in San Francisco's Ferry Building Marketplace: "They're a little easier. Tree oysters take more attention."
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Each kit comes with growing instructions. "You're trying to re-create the forest floor," she says.
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Finesse required
Ilusorio cautions that a certain amount of finesse is required. "People get the kits as gifts and don't know what to do with them. The hardest thing to hear is: 'It grew a black fuzzy lump I thought was mold, so I cut it off,' " she says.
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"The kits are like an amaryllis bulb," Litchfield says. "They fruit and then they're done. But after the first flush, you can transplant the kit into a bed of wood chips."
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Then it can go on producing and, with luck, inoculate the entire bed with mycelia. Outdoor beds need protection from snails and slugs, but mold is less a problem than for indoor growers.
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In other symbiotic relationships, Litchfield is working with Merritt's permaculture program to grow huitlacoche on corn, and has produced oyster mushrooms in worm boxes. His students also spend time in the lab and the kitchen.
"I've always used the mushrooms as an excuse to cook," he says.
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Resources
Ken Litchfield's mushroom class begins today, with late enrollment through Sept. 5. Go to peralta.edu and click on Enroll Now. For class schedule and course description, go to merrittlandhort.com.
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Far West Fungi, No. 34, Ferry Building Marketplace (Market at Embarcadero), San Francisco. (415) 989-9090 or store. farwestfungi.com.
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